Are you interested in, to know about History of Bareilly City, According to the epic Mahabharata, the Bareilly region is said to be the birth place of Draupadi which was the Panchala kingdom. Based on the folk tales, Gautam Buddha once visited the ancient Ahichchhakshetra of Bareilly. Jain Tirthankar Parshwa had attained Kaivalya on Ahichchha Kshetra.
In the 12th century, the state was under the rule of several factions of Kshatriya Rajputs. Delhi became a part of the Sultanate before being absorbed into the Mughal Empire that emerged in the region with the Islamic Turkish invasion. The foundation of modern Bareilly was laid by Mukrad Rai in 1657.
Bareilly is a very rich district from the archaeological point of view. Extensive remnants of Ahichchha Kshetra are located near Ramnagar village of Aonla tehsil of Bareilly district, the capital of Northern Panchal. It was the first excavations at Ahichchhakshetra (1940-44) that painted the Gray Ware, a site associated with the arrival of the Aryans in the Ganges Yamuna valley. About five thousand coins belonging to an earlier period than the Guptas are from Ahichchhakshetra.
The city is one of the richest cities of India from the base of Therakota. One of the masterpieces of Indian Theracotta art is Ahichchha Kshetra. On the basis of facts, the archaeological discovery area has been classified as religious category in the seventeenth century BC of the 11th century. Helps us to think from the beginning. There are also some ancient mounds in the district. Ancient History and Sanskrit Department of Rohilkhand University, Tihar-Kheda, Fatehganj West, Pachaini, Rahatua, Kadargarh, Senthal etc. were discovered at places.
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Some of the major centers of the North India Rebellion of 1857-59 by a map of 1912 are as follows: Meerut, Delhi, Bareilly, Kanpur, Lucknow, Jhansi and Gwalior.
Bareilly Rohilkhand was a major center of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. (This is known as India’s First War of Independence.) The rebellion took place in the form of a rebellion of native soldiers against perceived race-based injustice and inequality employed by the army of the (British East India Company) in Meerut on 16 May 1857. Hui soon erupted into other civil uprisings, mainly on the south face of the Himalayas, mainly along northern India and other local river basins, but on the northwest frontier with Afghanistan, both northwest of Peshawar south with local chapters. Further north from Delhi were concentrated on central India.
The news of the freedom struggle which started from Meerut reached Bareilly on 14 May 1857. The people rose in rebellion and captured the treasury and burned the Kotwali inscriptions, Khan Bahadur Khan, Hafiz Rahmat Khan’s grandson, formed his own government with Shobharam as Diwan, Madar Ali Khan and Niyaz Mohammad Khan as General and Hiralal. was appointed as a cashier.
During the Revolt of 1857, Rohilo participated very actively against the British. Khan Bahadur Khan formed his government in Bareilly during the time of Indian rebellion. During this period the troops were called from Bareilly on 1 June 1857. Become a victim of this time extortion from nearby Village Brook. The Joint Magistrate was forced to flee to Nainital.
British order was restored on 13 May 1858. Commander Caffney Capebell, 1st Baron Clyde of the British Army’s Ninth Regiment, assisted by a British Army High Lander, won the Battle of Bareilly on a Brat force. Some rebels were forcibly captured and sentenced to death. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 failed in Bareilly. Khan Bahadur Khan was hanged on 24 February 1860 at Kotwali.
बरेली ने टकसाल के रूप में अपनी स्थिति को बनाए रखा
इस अवधि के दौरान भी बरेली ने टकसाल के रूप में अपनी स्थिति को बनाए रखा। सम्राट अकबर और उसके वंशज बरेली में टकसालों पर सोने और चांदी के सिक्कों को ढाला करते थे। अफगान विजेता अहमद शाह दुर्रानी ने भी बरेली टकसाल में सोने और चांदी के सिक्के ढाले।
शाह आलम द्वितीय के समय में बरेली रोहिला सरदार हाफिज रहमत खां के मुख्यालय और कई अधिक सिक्के जारी किए। उसके बाद शहर अवध के नवाब आसफ उद्दौला के कब्जे में था जो सिक्के उन्होंने जारी किए उन पर बरेली आसफाबाद, बरेली पतंग और मछली का निशान पहचान के रूप में था। उसके बाद सिक्कों के निंटिग ईस्ट इण्डिया कंपनी को पारित कर दिया गया।
British East India Company rule
By 1801, with the support of the British army, the relief turned into disappointing dues due to various treaties. To repay the debt, Saadat Ali Khan surrendered Rohilkhand on 11 November 1801 as an agreement with the East India Company.
The Rohilla War was the first punitive campaign of Shujaud Daula, the Nawab of Awadh in 1773–1774 against the Rohillas. The Afghan mountaineers settled in Rohilkhand. Nawab Rohilla was supported by the British East India Company on relinquishing the loan. The combined forces of Shuja-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Awadh and the Company’s forces led by Colonel Champion defeated Hajif Rahmat Khan. Hafiz Rahmat Khan, who was killed in the Battle of Miranpur Katra in 1774, ended the chapter of Rohilla rule. Awadh captured Rohalkhand and looted it. Most of the Rohillas fled from Rohilkhand and settled on the Ganges to start a guerrilla war. A Rohilla state under British protection was established at Rampur. The Rohillas were stopped by a British contingent in 1774 along with the Nawab of Awadh, Bazir, after 50 years of indefinite independence. Which led to serious charges against Barren Hastings. The Second Rohilla War took place in 1794.
Period of protection of Awadh
Rohilkhand was given to the Nawab Wazir of Awadh. From 1700 to 1800, this region was ruled by the Nawab of Awadh. Ali Muhammad’s son Fail-Ullah fled to the north-west and led the Rohillas. After many agreements, he made a treaty with Shuja-ud-daula in 1774 AD, through which he accepted 9 parganas worth 15 lakhs per annum, giving the rest of Rohilkhand to Bazir of Rampur state. Saadat Ali was appointed as the Governor of Bareilly under the Government of Awadh.
Reign of Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barich:
Ali Muhammad was succeeded by Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barich, who was appointed as the royal representative of Rohilkhand by Ali Muhammad on his deathbed. Hafiz Rahmat Khan extended the power of Rohilkhand from Almora in the north to Etawah in the southwest. Rohilkhand power rose continuously under the leadership of Rahmat Ali Khan. However, the region was devastated by the quarrels of rival chiefs and the conflicts between neighboring powers, especially the Nawab Wazir of Awadh, the Banjesh Nawab and the Marathas.
Establishment of Rohilkhand:
Meanwhile, Ali Muhammad Khan of Shah Alam’s grandson Ali Muhammad Khan captured the city of Bareilly and made it his capital. Between 1707 and 1720, the Ruhelas were united and formed the state of Rohilkhand, making Bareilly their capital. He swiftly rose to power and reaffirmed his authority over the land he had occupied. In 1737 the emperor made him the Nawab and in 1740 he was recognized as the governor of Rohilkhand. According to the 1901 census of India, Bareilly district had a total population of 10,90,117 out of 40,779 Pathans. Their main factions were the Yusafzais, Ghoris, Lodis, Dhilzai, Barich, Marwat, Durrani, Tandoli, Tareen, Kakkar, Khattak, Afridi and Wakarzai. The remaining major cities were Rampur, Shahjahanpur, Badaun and others. The word Rohilla is derived from the Pashtu word Roh which means mountain and literally means mountain wind.
A period of anarchy and Islamic attacks
After the death of Harsha, an atmosphere of confusion and anarchy was established in this area. In the second quarter of the 8th century, this district was included in the kingdom of Yashvarman of Kannauj and after that King Ayuddha of Kannauj became the owner of this district for a few decades. They dominated Bareilly with the rise of the Gurjara Pratiharas in the 9th century and continued under their suzerainty till the end of the 10th century. Mahmud of Ghazni dealt a death blow to the already waning Gurjara Pratihar power. After the fall of the Gurjara Pratiharas, Ahichchhakshetra was banned to remain a prosperous cultural center of Ahichchhakshetra, as the inscriptions of Rashtrakuta chief Lekhpal show solid evidence that the throne of royal power was transferred from Ahichchhakshetra to Vohomyuta or modern-day Budaun. .
Mughal Empire and Rule of Delhi Sultanate
In the 13th century, when the Delhi Sultanate, five short-lived, Delhi-based states or sultanates of Turkish origin, were firmly established, Kathar was divided into the provinces of Sambhal and Badaun. But the densely forested country which was infested with wild animals provided proper refuge to the rebels and in fact Katahar was famous for its rebellion against the imperial power. During the Sultanate rule, the continuous rebellions in Kathar were all ruthlessly suppressed. Sultan Balwan ordered a large part of the forest to be cleared so that the area would become unsafe for the rebels. The slight weakness of the central authority provoked the acts of defiance of the Katheria Rajputs. Thus the Mughals started the policy of allotment of land to the Afghan settlements at Kathar. The promotion of Afghan settlements continued during the reign of Aurangzeb and even after his death. These Afghans were known as Rohilla Afghans. For this reason this region was named Rohilkhand. The purpose of this move of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir was to stop the rise of Rajputs which was dominant in the region. Some 20,000 soldiers originally from various Pashtun tribes (Yusufzai, Ghori, Lodi, Ghilzai, Barich, Marwat, Durrani, Tandoli, Tarin, Kakkar, Khattak, Afridi and Bakarzai) were hired by the Mughals. However, most of them settled in the Katehar region during Nadir Shah’s invasion of northern India in 1739, taking their population to 10,00,000. Due to the large settlements of Rohilla Afghans, Katehar region got fame as Rohilkhand. The city Bareilly was discovered by a Kateriya Rajput Basdio in 1537. For the first time the city was mentioned in history by Budayuni. Those who write that a Hussainkuli Khan was appointed governor of Bareilly and Sambhal in 1568 AD. The divisions and revenues of the district decided by Todarmal were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. The foundation of modern Bareilly was laid by Mukund Rai in 1657 AD. Bareilly was made the headquarters of Badaun province.
Rise of Buddhism and Jainism:
6th century BC Panchala was one of the 6 Mahajanapadas of India. The city was also influenced by Buddha and his followers. The remains of Buddhist monasteries are quite extensive on Ahichchhakshetra. According to folklore, Gautam Buddha once visited the ancient fort city of Ahichchhakshetra which is located in Bareilly. It is said that Jain Tirthankar Parshava had attained Kaivalya in Ahichchha Kshetra. The echoes of the Bhagavata and Sevas can still be seen in the massive temples which are the site’s grandest structures. Around 635 BC During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang also visited Ahichchhakshetra.
Railways in bareilly
Since the 19th century, Bareilly is well connected to other parts of the country through railways. An official map of 1909 shows that even during the 20th century, Bareilly was a major railway junction with 6 interchange railway tracks. In 1890, to increase profitability, the Bengal and North Western Railway took over the Tirhur State Railway under a lease. Indian Independence Movement:
In 1936, a Congress conference was held in Bareilly under the chairmanship of Acharya Narendra Dev. This conference was organized by Jawahar Lal Nehru, M.N. Roy, Purushottam Das Tandon and Rafi Ahmed Kidwai. When the Quit India Movement was launched in 1942, many processions and meetings were organized and about 200 people were arrested. Damodar Swaroop Seth, Brajmohan Lal Shastri, P.C. Azad, Ram Murthy, Naurang Lal, Chiranjeevi Lal, Adho Narayan, D.D. Vaigya and Darbari Lal Sharma were prominent among them. Many great leaders Jawaharlal Nehru, Rafi Ahmed Kidwai, Mahavir Tyagi, Manzar Ali Sokhata and Maulana Hafizul Rehman were imprisoned in the Bareilly Central Jail at that time.